2 RADIANT CITY VS BROADACRE CITY : THE LINEAR VS UNLINEAR PATTERN - INDUSTRIAL AGE PART 1

        Modern City (Argan, Giulio C., (1968), The  Renaissance Cities, New York: George Braziller)

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Plan of Barcelona (competitions)

 

     

Plan of Versailles, France for King Louis IX

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Plan of Paris, 1904

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Plan of Camillo site

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Motif of urban planning historically to:

Modern

a solution for urban sprawl
transportation, mechanical
decentrlised overcrowding
decongest traffic
healthy from urban pollution - air, noise, water if not secured systematically
to provide better living - social and physical satisfaction

21st Century

cyber, electronic industry
internet communication (satelite)
info technology
regional identity

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Le Corbusier: ‘The Radiant City’ (La Ville Radiense, 1933)

Contemporary City, Le Corbusier

 

Ideal city of the machine age (starting from Industrial Rev. 17th C)
Machine potential for liberation, to create harmony to planning aspect.

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Figure 1 'Vision Plan for Paris' by Le Corbusier in 1925, the expression of the age of the Machine

Oppression (-ve) MACHINE (+ve) Harmony

  1. Konsep "harmony by contrast" - a building should stand in contrast to nature rather than than appear as an outgrowth of natural formation
  2. potray man made nature, using example from Greek city planning : Acropolis, man made crown to top off a mountain to desolate landscape and gathering it into the composition.
  3. Radiant city based on Corbu understanding the concept of DOMINION / Mesiah (architect) from Genesis/bible
  4. Concept of totalitarian of King Louis’s Versailles garden before the French Revolution. VG symbolises the power of the ruler / King Louis in which that time showing the King authority/ totalitarian power against the power of the mass/citizens/majority/ the rise of national government.
  5. Perancangan yang berasaskan konsep individualistic realm of family life and participation based on planning authority by the architect/urban planner but permits participation among the pedestrians/family, nuclei of family in the community as a whole. community more libertarian vs more authoritarian. architect/planner given their authority become absolute, urban productive capacities based on organised syndicalism.

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Figure 2 Plan of Brazilia

 

SYNDICALISM

PYRAMID OF NATURAL HIERARCHIES
A SOCIAL WORK OF ART
A PERFECT COOPERATION OF EVERYONE

IN THE HIERARCHIES

 

 

 

Conveys man freedom according to nature, not opposite nature.
Designed city without classes
Radiant city is an urban planning between aspects organisation & freedom
Each residential district radically liberated, is equality and cooperation opposite pyramid to hierarchy of industrial work.

PYRAMID

NATURAL V S INDUSTRIAL

organic geometric

DUALITY

individual liberty & respect authority
Structure of the transport & towers, city of towers and division/hierarchical orders of transportation network influenced by ideas from
  1. Tony Garner - ideal city seperated transport, known also as the French EB, an architect from Lyon. the physical plan is dominated by strong axial boulevards and housing on rectangular grids. his book, Cite industrielle in 1898.
  2. Augustus Perret’s idea of isolated towers
Garner + Perret = Corbu (Radiant city)
Radiant city developed from Corbu Ist idea of city planning - 1922 Ville Contemporaine (city of 3 million population) with elevated highways for motorcars/machine vehicle, pedestrian traffic on the ground with open parks & garden, 40-60 uniformed 700 foot skyscrapers built apart elevated on pilotis, seperation between transportation network and pedestrian walkways.
For Corbu, the city is man’s grip upon nature, building should stand in contrast to nature rather than appear as an outgrowth of natural formation (harmony by contrast).
LC envisioned new urban pattern, free from central city of excessive pressures of growth 7 undesireable manufacturing activity.
Designed urban schemes with the application of geometric plan free from topographic constraint when confronted with the irregular configurations of actual site.
Concerning city as place for dwelling, work, cultivation of mind & body, and circulation. RC is a reconstitution of natural environment, living air, greenery, and sky.
By decongest the city center by increasing density of units/acre by building skyscrapers.

By dividing zoning for environmental control for human living threat by industrial pollution

Layout
  1. At the center, group of skyscrapers functioned as administrative, business/commercial and civic centres.
  2. Rectangular belt with apartments, houses(double storeys) with continous wall.
  3. outer ring - garden apartment
  4. massive belt of agriculture greenery with several miles width
  5. Industrial areas.

 

Frank Lloyd Wright

Broadacre City

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anti-urban thinking, attempt to decentralise dev. of the city.
Idea of democracy for the new nation - America with this identical image.
generated this idea in 1924 during industrial development in the cities across America, rural migration to the city, overcrowding and traffic congestion, people left country apart - also tradition, culture and life of homestead community of countryside, from agriculture to industry.
the same belief in the homestading principle and the return to the land; there is even that distinctively American.
a slow decay of rural America, ground down between the soul-destroying drudgery of pre-electric farm and the welcoming lights of the city.
rejection of further development of big city like New York - as a cancer, a ‘fibrous tumour’; the same populist antipathy to finance capital and lanlordism, rejection of big government, the same reliance on the liberating effects of new technologies;
Unlike EB’s, to live as free individuals; he desired not to marry town and country, but merge with them.
Usonian vision: the low density marriage of suburb and countryside; every citizen simultaneously an urbanite and a farmer (self-sufficient community)???,

 

Pattrick Geddes

Urban pattern based on anarchist tradition - free confederations of autonomous region.
Influenced geographical condition in creating urban pattern, more geographical approach from French geographer, Elisee Reclus and Frederic Le Blache: during his contracts with them, and scottish culture during his lectureship in Scotland.
Idea of the natural region, exemplified by his famous valley section. prefered to relate urban pattern based on the region in its purest form, compared to city pattern.
Planning must start, for Geddes, with a survey of the resources of such a natural region, of the human responses to it, and of the resulting complexities of the cultural landscape.
Draw cross-sections of that general slope from mountains to sea which we find everywhere in the world which we can readily adapt to any scale, and to any proportions, of our particular and characteristic range, of hills and slopes and plain.
So called ‘Valley Section’, makes vivid to us the range of climate, with its corresponding vegetation and animal life ..... the essential sectional outline of a geographer’s region.
Example to many historic Malaysian cities and town like Malacca, Georgetown, Singapore, KL, Taiping their morphology of the city development. near delta/kuala like KB, KT, Alor Star dependency of the river as sources of life - according to geographical condition.
finds place for all the nature-occupations. hunter and shepherd, poor peasant and rich; these are our most familiar occupational types, and manifestly successive as we decend in altitude, and come down the course of social history.

MINER          WOODMAN  HUNTER       SHEPHERD   PEASANT      GARDENER FISHER

 

Regional study gave understanding of an active, experienced environment of comprehensible liberty and the mainspring of cultural evolution. which were being attacked and eroded by the centralised nation-state and by large-scale machine industry.
towards decentralisation system of social and physical pattern of planning.

The TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority):

based on Geddes regional planning by RPAA Regional Planning of America. by President Roosevelt under the New Deal./ political agenda
example of regional river-basin planning.
Tennessee river/valley 650 miles long, its basin the size of Britain/Malaysia with diverse in climate, resources, racial composition and cultural patterns.
A dam to generate electric power and control floods like empangan Kenyir
RPAA idea that electric power and the truck were aiding decentralisation of industry to small / rural communities while electricity, radio, cinema and communication bringing an urban quality of life to the countryside.
Problem of the development: TVA became more and more a power generating authority, devoted to creation of a big industrial-urban base. - should have been called Tennessee Valley Power Production and Flood Control Corporation. Little concern of the existing rural community
A vision to show that a town where rich and poor would live together, and where the inhabitants would combine agriculture and craft industries - was never fulfilled.

 

Marry Brown "Learning from Las Vegas"

See Las Vegas as the best example to symbolise the cultural identity - the uniqueness of American community of the New World in contrast to public and sholars opinion of the modern American identity which is disastrous.
Argue this identity express the commercialisation integration of the American life with the capitalism as a powerful entity in building American nation. Center of business, powerr of capital nation and power of economic nation and the leader of economic nation in the globe.
The Unided States seen by other nations as a corporate image and corporate nation where corporations are the one who control the American politics as well.
As industrial nation strongly links to corporate power - the strata of American community.
Power of commercialisation with power of advertising posters to attract consumers to target them - Age of consumerism Consumer is a property of success in comercialism. H
How the capitalism, and consumerism have influenced the American landscape with avertising boards competing to each other and shaping building form to express as the welcoming to get the client.