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The Architectural Styles Of Mosques in Malaysia:

From Vernacular to Modern Structures

by

Dr. A. Ghafar Ahmad

Paper presented at the Symposium on Mosque Architecture,

King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia   31 Jan. 99 - 3 Feb. 99

(Paper published in Proceedings of the Symposium on Mosque Architecture: The Historic and Urban Developments of Mosque Architecture, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Vol. 2, 1999, p. 147-163)

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Tengkera Mosque, Malacca (left), Ubudiah Mosque, Kuala Kangsar, Perak (centre) and Ibai Mosque of Kampung Cendering, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu (right)

1.0  INTRODUCTION

Malaysia, which is situated in the heart of South-east Asia, consists of thirteen states; eleven in the Malay Peninsula and the two states of Sabah and Sarawak in the northern quarter of Borneo. Malaysia or formerly known as Malaya gained her independence from the British on 31 August 1957. The formation of Malaysia in 1963 included the eleven states in the Malay Peninsula, Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore. Due to political circumstances, Singapore was separated from Malaysia in 1965. Presently, Malaysia has a population of 21.9 million comprising of the Malays 51%, Chinese 35%, Indians 10% and the remaining 4% are formed by other ethnic groups such as the Dayaks, Kadazans, Thais, Eurasians, Indonesians and Arabs. The Malaysian government is a parliamentary democratic system with a Prime Minister as the Head of the Government and an elected Yang Di Pertuan Agong (King), whom is one of the nine Sultans, serving five-year terms as the Supreme Head of State.

With the majority of its population being Muslims, the mosque is a common building found in most urban and rural areas in the country. The varying architectural styles of the mosques displayed particular design characteristics which are reflective of many factors including ethnic culture, colonialism, technology utilisation and the political environment. Using the methods of building surveys and inspection to record the various types of mosque architecture in Malaysia, this paper presents a comparative analyses of the mosques built during different periods in the Malaysian history. The paper also studies the changes in the mosque architecture in Malaysia from vernacular and colonial influences to modern structures.

2.0 THE COMING OF ISLAM TO MALAYSIA

In 1887, an inscribed stone was found on the banks of Tarsat River at Kuala Brang, Terengganu, which is a state in the east coast of the Malay Peninsula. The inscriptions on the stone, which referred to a Malay kingdom ruled by Islamic Law, were dated 4 Rejab 702 Hijrah (22 February 1303). This historical evidence has proven that Islam first came to Malaysia, particularly the Malay Peninsula in the early 14th century. However, besides the inscribed stone, no other evidence either the ruins or historical records of architectural styles and building materials used in mosques during that period was discovered.

The growth of Islam in the Malay Peninsula became more prominent in the early 15th century during the Malay sultanate of Malacca. Under this kingdom, Islam was disseminated to all areas in the Malay Peninsula. Malacca was then established as an important centre for the spread of Islam in the region. Many mosques of the traditional architectural style were built to hold prayers and other activities associated with the teachings and dissemination of Islam. The architectural style and building materials of the mosques built during this period were similar to that of the traditional Malay houses. The buildings were raised on stilts and timber was largely used for building structures. Attap (Nipah thatch) and clay tiles roofs were commonly used in both the mosque and Malay houses.

Due to its strategic location facing the Straits of Malacca, Malacca in the 15th century had flourished as a port city which became an important trading centre for spices, textiles and pottery highly in demand by both Europeans and Asians. Muslim merchants and traders from India, the Middle East and Indonesia came to Malacca to trade as well as to spread Islam. Some of them had settled in many parts of the Malay Peninsula and had built mosques and Quranic schools (madrasahs) in their community. For instance, the Acheen Street Mosque area in Georgetown, Penang, Malaysia was the earliest settlement of the Muslim Achenese community on the island. The settlement, which was established by merchants and traders headed by Tengku Syed Hussain Al-Aidid from northern Sumatera, Indonesia in the early 1800's, includes a mosque with an ancient well, a minaret, rows of shophouses, traditional townhouses and a cemetery. Besides the Achenese settlements, there are other Muslim settlements in Malaysia including the Indians, Javanese, Pakistanis and Arabs. They are highly distinguished by the ethnic cultures, languages and also the distinctive architectural styles of their mosques.

Although Islam is the official religion in Malaysia, freedom of worship is enjoyed by all the ethnic communities. Many new mosques have been built in the country to cater for the increasing number of the Muslim population, particularly in new housing estates in both urban and rural areas.

3.0 COLONIAL OCCUPATION AND BRITISH ARCHITECTURE

The Malay sultanate of Malacca came to an end when the Portuguese conquered Malacca in 1511. The Malay sultans and their families fled to other states in the Malay Peninsula. Some became the sultans of the respective states while others seeked military assistance from Indonesia and the Dutch. In 1641, the Dutch, who controlled most parts of Indonesia, defeated the Portuguese in Malacca and conquered the Malay Peninsula. In the 18th century, the British, who had earlier colonised Sumatera, made an agreement with the Dutch to exchange Sumatera for Malacca and other states in the Malay Peninsula. The first British settlement and military support was in the island of Penang when Captain Sir Francis Light gained the island by mutual agreement from the Sultan of Kedah in 1795.

As a country which had been colonised by the Portuguese (1511-1641), Dutch (1641-1795) and British (1795-1957), the remains of its colonial architecture can still be found in most major cities including Malacca, Georgetown, Kuala Lumpur, Johor Bahru, Ipoh, Kuching and Kota Kinabalu. The Portuguese and Dutch architecture are primarily found in Malacca. Examples of the Portuguese architecture include the Porta de Santiago Gate built in 1511 and the St. Paul's Church built in 1590. However, during the Dutch occupation both buildings were destroyed and left in ruins. The Dutch architecture include the Stadhuys building built between 1641-60 for the Dutch Governor and the Christ Church erected in 1753. Today, these buildings still remained intact and are well maintained. The Stadhuys building was renovated and converted into a state museum.

The 160-year of British occupation in Malaysia has brought about major changes in the local architectural scenes, particularly in many parts of the British settlements including major cities, plantation estates and military areas. The British colonial buildings range from official residences of British resident-generals and Anglican churches to railway stations and public buildings. A. Ghafar Ahmad in his book entitled British Colonial Architecture in Malaysia 1800-1930 has classified the British colonial buildings found in Malaysia into 12 categories (1, p.30). These include the mosques/churches, forts/military, palaces, clock towers, prisons, government offices, institutional/commercial, residential, schools, railway stations, hotels/guest houses; and miscellaneous buildings/monuments. All these buildings portray distinctive design characteristics which are similar to their contemporary designs in England.

Aesthetically, British colonial architecture in Malaysia is essentially a hybrid. The buildings can be classified into four main architectural styles, namely the Moorish influence, Tudor, Neo-Classical and Neo-Gothic. The buildings were designed and built by trained architects, contractors, bricklayers, soldiers or even priests. Some British architects and engineers, who had previously worked in India and other parts of the British Empire, were inspired by the Moghul architecture and had incorporated such architectural styles into the designs of government offices and railway stations in the Malay Peninsula. This was accomplished with due respect to the Islamic faith of the local Malays, particularly the sultans. The Moorish influence can be seen in many buildings in the heart of Kuala Lumpur city such as the majestic Sultan Abdul Samad Building built in 1897, the Railway Station built in 1911; and the Railway Administration Headquarters built in 1917. Incidentally, there had been non-Muslims British architects and engineers who were responsible for the design and construction of mosques in Malaysia. The architectural styles of these mosques differed very much from the vernacular mosques. Examples of some British architects and engineer who were responsible for the design of mosques in Malaysia are as follows:

architect A.B. Hubbuck who designed the Jamek Mosque (1909), Kuala Lumpur

architect H.A. Neubronner who designed the Kapitan Keling Mosque (1916), Georgetown, Penang

architect L. Keste Ven who designed the Sultan Sulaiman Mosque (1932), Kelang, Selangor

engineer J. Goman who supervised the Zahir Mosque (1912), Alor Setar, Kedah.

4.0 METHODOLOGY: SELECTION OF MOSQUES AND BUILDING

SURVEYS

A total of 34 mosques built in Malaysia, particularly in the Malay Peninsula were surveyed and inspected in this study. The locations of the mosques surveyed represent a geographical cross-section of various architectural styles throughout the Malay Peninsula. This includes mosques located in Penang Island, along the west and east coast, in central regions and a few remote places. Appendix 1 shows a list of mosques surveyed, year built, architectural styles and influences. The selection of the mosques was based upon key criteria which are as follows:

year built (18th Century to date)

architectural styles (vernacular, colonial influence or modern)

status of mosques (National, State, District, Village)

locations (states in the Malay Peninsula)

Several building surveys and inspections covering site investigations, structural survey, building condition and defects; and photographic study were carried out to establish the different architectural styles of mosques in Malaysia. The study also includes comparative analyses between the traditional mosques and the colonial-influence mosques built during the British occupation in the country. The architectural styles of the modern mosques are also studied and classified in order to have a better understanding of the changes in the mosque architecture from vernacular and colonial influences to modern structures.

Since there is no central body for recording characteristics of mosque buildings in the country, the identification of the mosques surveyed in the study was based on the following procedures:

collecting any possible record at various agencies, local institutions and conservation bodies such as museums, archives, libraries, universities, Heritage of Malaysia Trust, Conservation and Urban Design Unit of Kuala Lumpur and Penang Heritage Trust.

conducting a mosque survey in major cities, towns, districts and villages.

carrying out verbal interviews with people expected to have some knowledge about mosques built in or around their area.

Once the mosques had been recognised and identified, a building survey together with structural and site inspections were carried out. Each mosque was studied externally and internally following permission from the mosque authority. The architectural styles and building structures were noted and recorded on mosque survey forms. Key information recorded in the forms include the name of mosque, address, mosque authority, date of built, name of architect/builder, construction area, date gazetted (listed) if applicable (under the Malaysian Antiquity Act 1976), description of mosque, maps and photographs of mosque and proposals for mosque maintenance.

5.0 ARCHITECTURAL STYLES OF MOSQUES IN MALAYSIA

Based on the mosque surveys, the architectural styles of the mosques in Malaysia can be classified into 3 types with corresponding built periods, which are as follows:

5.1 Vernacular Mosques (18th century to date)

For a tropical country such as Malaysia where heavy rainfall and warm sunshine occur all year round, the design of the vernacular mosques reflects most of the characteristics of the traditional Malay houses. The architectural style of the vernacular mosques are influenced by four major factors including climatic conditions, availability of building materials, craftsmanship and ethnic background. Examples of some building features which were built in response to the warm and humid climatic conditions are pitched roofs to enable rain water to run off quickly, stilts to raise the mosques above ground level to avoid floods; and many openings including louvered windows, fanlights and carving panels to allow natural cross ventilation of air. Building materials such as timber, bamboo, bricks, stone, clay tiles and attap are widely used in the vernacular mosques as they are easily available locally. Like the Malay houses, the vernacular mosques portray high level of craftsmanship. This can be seen in the windows, fanlights, carving wall panels, fascia boards and well-designed mimbar with intricate flower motifs. Such craftsmanship generally reflects the owners' status and wealth, particularly for the Malay houses.

It is important to highlight that there are two types of architectural styles under the vernacular mosques category, namely the traditional and regional influence. The traditional mosques usually reflect the strong influences of the Malay houses, way of life and environment. Conversely, vernacular mosques with regional influence can be distinguished by their two or three-tiered roofs with decorative roof ridges and clay tiles, octagonal minarets and buildings which are square in shape. The regional influence mosques in Malaysia are similar to that of the old mosques built in many parts of Indonesia. This is partly because some of the Malays in Malaysia are the descendants of various ethnic groups from Indonesia. For example, the Malays of Javanese descent came from the Island of Java, the Malays of Banjar descent originated from Kalimantan on the Island of Borneo; whilst the Malays of Bugis descent were from the Island of Sulawesi. Examples of the vernacular mosques with traditional influence are Kampung Laut Mosque, Nilam Puri, Kelantan (1730's), Langgar Mosque, Kota Bharu, Kelantan (1871), Paloh Mosque, Ipoh, Perak (1912) and Kampung Raja Mosque, Seremban, Negeri Sembilan (1924). Examples of the vernacular mosques with regional influence are Tengkera Mosque, Malacca (1728), Kampung Keling Mosque, Malacca (1748), Old Mosque of Kampung Masjid Tinggi, Bagan Serai, Perak (1929) and Tanjung Keling Mosque, Malacca (1930).

5.2 Colonial Mosques (1795 to 1957)

There are a number of mosques built during the British occupation of Malaysia between 1795 and 1957. Some of the mosques were designed by local architects and designers whilst others were designed and supervised by British architects and engineers from the Public Works Department. Most of the mosques built during the colonial period are architecturally different from the vernacular mosques in terms of scale and proportion, form, features and building materials. Domes (either onion-shaped or top-shaped), turrets, classical columns, pilasters, pointed arches, keystones, pediments and plastered renderings on cornices and capitals are common features found in the colonial mosques. Effectively, the British architects, at the turn of the century, had combined the Moorish influence and the classical styles to portray an Islamic image to the mosques. For example, the Sultan Abu Bakar Mosque in Johor Bahru, Johor has four wings with minarets, pinnacles and domes as well as classical elements. Another interesting example is the Jamek Mosque in Muar, Johor which is a combination of Baroque classical style and the Moorish influence. Rather than a mosque, the building depicts a public building commonly built in the 17th and 18th century Europe which features a complexity of forms and decorative elements.

Many of the colonial mosques were built to appeal to the Malay societies particularly the Malay rulers (2, p.17). Some mosques were built in the proximity of royal palaces and were even named after the respective sultans. For example, the Ubudiah Mosque in Kuala Kangsar, Perak was built close to the Bukit Chandan Palace, whilst the Abidin Mosque in Kuala Terengganu was named after the late Sultan Zainal Abidin II , the ruler of Terengganu.

Following the period of the mosques of Moorish influences with classical features, the Art-Deco influences on mosques became more visible in the 1930's. This period incidentally coincided with the Art-Deco trend in western architectural development. The key features of the Art-Deco influences include simple geometric shapes, cubic masses and plain surfaces. However, there are relatively few colonial mosques of the Art-Deco influences in the country compared to the ones with Moorish influences with classical features. Examples of the colonial mosques with the moorish influences (including classical features) are Acheen Street Mosque, Georgetown, Penang (1808), Abidin Mosque, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu (1808), Sultan Abu Bakar Mosque, Johor Bahru, Johor (1892), Jamek Mosque, Ipoh, Perak (1898), Indian Mosque, Ipoh, Perak (1908), Jamek Mosque, Kuala Lumpur (1909), Syed Alwi Mosque, Kangar, Perlis (1910), Zahir Mosque, Alor Setar, Kedah (1912), Ubudiah Mosque, Kuala Kangsar, Perak (1912), Kapitan Keling Mosque, Georgetown, Penang (1916), Al-Muhammadi Mosque, Kota Bharu, Kelantan (1922), Alauddin Mosque, Kelang, Selangor (1925) and Jamek Mosque, Muar, Johor (1925). Examples of the colonial mosques with Art-Deco influence are Sultan Sulaiman Mosque, Kelang, Selangor (1932) and Jamek Mosque of Pontian, Johor (1938).

5.3 Modern Mosques (1958 to date)Many local architects were involved in the design of new mosques in Malaysia since independence. The architectural styles of the modern mosques have changed gradually in parallel with the development in structural advances, construction methods, contemporary designs of mosques as well as increased local interests toward Islamic architecture. With the advent of science and technology, modern mosques are constructed in a larger scale to accommodate the increasing number of Friday congregations. Concrete, bricks, steel, stone and marble are commonly used in the construction of modern mosques. Onion-shaped or top-shaped domes, tall minarets and high ceilings are common features found in the modern mosques. The modern mosques usually incorporate well-designed landscape elements including plants, water features, patterned pavements, garden lightings and signages.

The architectural styles of the modern mosque can be classified into two categories. The first category is the modern styles which emphasise the advancement in building technology and engineering. For example, the National Mosque in Kuala Lumpur has a minaret of 245 feet in height and an umbrella-like roof. The mosque was constructed of reinforced concrete faced with Italian marble. Its main prayer hall can accommodate more than 3,000 people for prayer at one time whilst its surrounding galleries, topped with numerous small domes, can hold an additional of 5,000 people. The mosque also has a number of rooms used for various functions such as a library, offices, royal guest rooms, Imam's room and store rooms.

The second category of modern mosque is the Islamic influences which incorporate the styles of many mosques found in Islamic countries including Turkey, the Middle East and Northern Africa. For instance, the design and colour of the Sultan Abdul Aziz Mosque in Shah Alam, Selangor was reflective of the infamous Ottoman mosque in Istanbul, Turkey. The mosque has four high minarets at the four corners of the building surrounded by well-kept landscape. Another example is the white-colour Ibai Mosque at Kuala Terengganu which was built on water and its architecture bears a resemblance to the Northern African mosque. Examples of modern mosques with modern structures are Sultan Ahmad I Mosque, Kuantan, Pahang (1964), National Mosque, Kuala Lumpur (1965), State Mosque, Seremban, Negeri Sembilan (1967), State Mosque, Kangar, Perlis (1972), Sultan Idris Shah II Mosque, Ipoh, Perak (1978), State Mosque, Penang (1980) and KLCC Mosque, Kuala Lumpur (1998) (Figure 20). Examples of modern mosques with Islamic influence are Al-Malik Khalid Mosque, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang (1975), Sultan Abdul Aziz Mosque, Shah Alam, Selangor (1989) and Ibai Mosque of Kampung Cendering, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu (1994).

6.0 COMPARATIVE ANALYSES OF THE MOSQUESComparative analyses of the 34 mosques selected for this study, classified by the 3 built periods, are presented in this section. Four key aspects of these mosques are compared and contrasted to establish the common features and differences between the mosques of various periods. The key aspects are scale and elements of mosques; building materials; wood carvings and plastered renderings; and facilities and fixtures.

6.1 Scale and Elements of Mosque

In terms of scale and proportion, the size of the vernacular mosques is usually much smaller compared to the colonial and modern mosques. The smaller-sized vernacular mosques may be associated with a smaller population threshold targeted for such mosques. Due to their relatively bigger sizes, the colonial and modern mosques are classified as the District, State, Royal or National mosques by the mosque authority.

As far as the elements of the mosques are concerned, the colonial mosques feature a richer vocabulary in architecture compared with the vernacular and modern mosques. Most colonial mosques have distinct architectural features such as onion-shaped or top-shaped domes, turrets, classical columns, pilasters, pointed arches, keystones, pediments and plastered renderings on cornices and capitals.

6.2 Building Materials

Timber is used excessively in the construction of the vernacular mosques. Attap and clay tiles are widely used for roofing. However, as the need for building bigger mosques arised during and after the British colonial period, other building materials including concrete, brick and steel were used to replace timber. With the advancement of construction technologies, modern mosques have been built with reinforced concrete and steel structures.

6.3 Wood Carvings and Plastered Renderings

Most of the vernacular mosques have fine wood carvings of flower motifs, particularly on wall panels, fanlights, windows and mimbar. On the other hand, plastered renderings are commonly found in the colonial mosques, especially on cornices, column capitals, pilasters, arches as well as around windows and doors. Interestingly, some of the modern mosques have incorporated both the wood carvings and plastered renderings especially on the interior walls.

6.4 Facilities and Fixtures

Most of the facilities in all types of mosques have been upgraded to satisfy the growing number of prayers or users. For example, some vernacular mosques which used to have a common ablution pool have now installed rows of water outlets for the convenience of the users. Modern lighting fixtures have also replaced the traditional oil lamps. Some modern mosques have installed air-conditioning units in the prayer halls and laid modern carpets.

7.0 CONCLUSIONS

This study adopted the method of building surveys and inspections to record the various types of mosque architecture in 34 selected mosques across Malaysia. This paper presents a comparative analyses of the mosques built during different periods in the Malaysian history and studies the changes in the mosque architecture from vernacular and colonial influences to modern structures. The study has classified the three types of mosques, namely the vernacular mosques, the colonial mosques and the modern mosques. The common characteristics of all these mosques have been discussed in the paper to provide a better understanding of the architectural styles of these mosques and the factors which influence these styles. Generally, there are five main factors which govern the architectural styles of the mosques in Malaysia. They are ethnic culture, climatic conditions, colonialism, technology utilisation and the political environment. These factors largely determine the design of the mosques, building forms, shapes and sizes; and mosque locations.

Mosques of the vernacular and colonial styles should be considered as national heritage partly due to their historical and architectural values. Like the traditional Malay houses, mosques of such styles portray unique characteristics which enrich the local architectural scene. All mosques which are historically and architecturally significant should be listed or gazetted in order to protect the buildings from being demolished. The practice of building conservation which includes the works of repair and maintenance may guarantee the building life span. It is a process which leads to the prolongation of the life of cultural property (3, p.v). Building conservation should be seen as a way of preserving particular aspects of Malaysia's history and development. In most cities and towns in Malaysia, the mosques are usually more distinctive than other buildings. Sometimes, mosques of unique architectural styles become the landmarks and focal points in the streets. This has resulted in the formation of a unique identity and image to the urban fabric which may enhance the Muslim communities and cultures.

With current rising awareness of the need for building conservation and preservation in the country, it is increasingly vital to consider the state of building conditions and proper building maintenance programme to uphold such buildings. Historic mosques such as the vernacular and colonial mosques are prone to building defects and such practices of keeping building intact are crucial. In an effort to preserve and conserve historic mosques, the Government through the Department of Museum and Antiquity has gazetted a number of old mosques under the Antiquities Act 1976. Examples of mosques which have been preserved and conserved are the Jamek Mosque, Kuala Lumpur; the Ubudiah Mosque, Kuala Kangsar, Perak; the Sultan Abu Bakar Mosque, Johor Bharu, Johor; and the Acheen Street Mosque, Georgetown, Penang. It is important to acknowledge that both the vernacular and colonial mosques are historically and architecturally significant, particularly in accentuating the historical development of Malaysia.

 

Appendix 1:   The list of mosques surveyed in the study

No

Name of mosque

Location

Year built

Architectural styles

Architectural influence

1.

Tengkera Mosque

Malacca

1728

Vernacular

Regional

2.

Kampung Hulu Melaka Mosque

Malacca

1728

Vernacular

Regional

3.

Kampung Laut Mosque

Nilam Puri, Kelantan

1730’s

Vernacular

Traditional

4.

Kampung Keling Mosque

Malacca

1748

Vernacular

Regional

5.

Abidin Mosque

Kuala Terengganu

1808

Colonial

Moorish influence (classical features)

6.

Acheen Street Mosque

Georgetown, Penang

1808

Colonial

Moorish influence (classical features)

7.

Langgar Mosque

Kota Bharu,

Kelantan

1871

Vernacular

Traditional

8.

Sultan Abu Bakar Mosque

Johor Bahru,

Johor

1892

Colonial

Moorish influence (classical features)

9.

Jamek Mosque

Ipoh, Perak

1898

Colonial

Moorish influence (classical features)

10.

Indian Mosque

Ipoh, Perak

1908

Colonial

Moorish influence (classical features)

11.

Jamek Mosque

Kuala Lumpur

1909

Colonial

Moorish influence (classical features)

12.

Syed Alwi Mosque

Kangar, Perlis

1910

Colonial

Moorish influence (classical features)

13.

Zahir Mosque

Alor Setar,

Kedah

1912

Colonial

Moorish influence (classical features)

14.

Ubudiah Mosque

Kuala Kangsar,

Perak

1912

Colonial

Moorish influence (classical features)

15.

Paloh Mosque

Ipoh, Perak

1912

Vernacular

Traditional

16.

Kapitan Keling Mosque

Georgetown,

Penang

1916

Colonial

Moorish influence (classical features)

17.

Al-Muhammadi Mosque

Kota Bharu,

Kelantan

1922

Colonial

Moorish influence (classical features)

18.

Kampung Raja Mosque

Seremban,

N. Sembilan

1924

Vernacular

Traditional

19.

Jamek Mosque

Muar, Johor

1925

Colonial

Moorish influence (classical features)

20.

Alauddin Mosque

Kelang,

Selangor

1925

Colonial

Moorish influence (classical features)

21.

Old Mosque of Kampung

Tinggi

Bagan Serai,

Perak

1929

Vernacular

Regional

22.

Tanjung Keling Mosque

Malacca

1930

Vernacular

Regional

23.

Sultan Sulaiman Mosque

Kelang,

Selangor

1932

Colonial

Art-Deco influence

24.

Jamek Mosque

Pontian, Johor

1938

Colonial

Art-Deco influence

25.

Sultan Ahmad I Mosque

Kuantan, Pahang

1964

Modern

Modern structures

26.

National Mosque

Kuala Lumpur

1965

Modern

Modern structures

27.

State Mosque

Seremban,

N. Sembilan

1967

Modern

Modern structures

28.

State Mosque

Kangar, Perlis

1972

Modern

Modern structures

29.

Sultan Idris Shah II

Mosque

Ipoh, Perak

1978

Modern

Modern structures

30.

State Mosque

Penang

1980

Modern

Modern structures

31.

Al-Malik Khalid Mosque

USM, Penang

1982

Modern

Islamic influence

32.

Sultan Abdul Aziz Mosque

Shah Alam,

Selangor

1989

Modern

Islamic influence

33.

Ibai Mosque of Kampung

Cendering

Kuala Terengganu

1994

Modern

Islamic influence

34.

KLCC Mosque

Kuala Lumpur

1998

Modern

Modern Structures

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